Immune Profile

(Allergies & Sensitivities)

[Genova Labs]

How Can Genova’s Immune Profile help you?

Did you know that the most common foods known to trigger reactions include wheat/gluten, milk, eggs, peanuts and tree nuts, soy, and shellfish? However, removing all of these foods may not be necessary. Testing can help pinpoint which foods are causing the reaction.

  • Eliminating specific reactive foods can improve your symptoms.

  • Knowing which foods may be a problem can help you and your clinician build the best diet for you rather than following fad diets or restricting foods unnecessarily.

 

Genova offers an all-in-one test to provide a full picture of your immune system response.

 

Every food test comes with a personalized summary of reactive foods. This can help your clinician develop a tailored food plan specific to your needs and symptoms.

What is the Immune Profile?

The IgG Food Antibody Panel can be ordered as a stand-alone test or bundled with other profiles. Often times, clinicians will bundle several smaller profiles in order to see a more complete picture of the patient's immune-mediated response. Profiles that can be bundled include:

 

  • IgG Foods - 87 foods plus total IgE

  • IgG Vegetarian - 21 foods plus total IgE

  • IgG Spices - 24 spices plus total IgE

  • IgE Foods - 19 foods plus total IgE

  • IgE Molds - 15 molds plus total IgE

  • IgE Inhalants - 16 inhalants specific to 18 North American geographic regions plus total IgE

  • Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity - Total IgA, tTG IgA, DGP IgA, EMA IgA, Anti-Gliadin IgG & IgA

1.

The IgG Food Antibody Assessment is a blood test that measures antibodies to 87 commonly consumed foods. The panel also includes a total IgE measurement. The body can react to foods in many different ways. Adverse food reactions can lead to distressing symptoms and chronic health conditions. Often times it is unknown exactly which food(s) may be the cause and testing can help identify the problematic foods. Removal of the reactive foods often results in resolution of symptoms.

2.

The IgG Vegetarian Food Profile (*not available in NY) is a blood test that measures antibodies to 21 vegetarian foods. The panel also includes a total IgE measurement. The body can react to foods in many different ways. Adverse food reactions can lead to distressing symptoms and chronic health conditions. Often times it is unknown exactly which food(s) may be the cause and testing can help identify the problematic foods. Removal of the reactive foods often results in resolution of symptoms.

3.

The IgG Spice Profile (*not available in NY) is a blood test that measures antibodies to 24 culinary herbs and spices. The profile also includes a total IgE measurement. The body can react to foods in many different ways. Adverse food reactions can lead to distressing symptoms and chronic health conditions. Often times it is unknown exactly which food(s) may be the cause and testing can help identify the problematic foods. Removal of the reactive foods often results in resolution of symptoms.

4.

The IgE Food Antibody Assessment is a blood test that measures IgE antibodies to 19 of the most allergenic foods. The panel also includes a total IgE measurement. The body can react to foods in many different ways. The prevalence of food allergies in Western countries is rising, with up to 10% of the population affected. This trend likely involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors.

5.

The IgE Mold Profile is a blood test that measures IgE antibodies to 15 common indoor and outdoor molds. The panel also includes a total IgE measurement. Everyone breathes in airborne mold spores, and in people with mold allergies, symptoms mainly affect the respiratory tract. Testing for mold allergies can identify whether mold is causing the symptoms. The patient can experience relief with symptom management, and by avoiding ongoing exposure to the mold source.

6.

The IgE Inhalants Profile is a blood test that measures IgE antibodies to 16 common indoor and outdoor inhalants specific to 18 North American geographic regions. The profile also includes a total IgE measurement. Testing can help identify whether an allergen is triggering the common symptoms associated with seasonal, pet or mite allergies. These symptoms include sneezing, coughing, itchy and watery eyes, and others. The patient can experience relief with symptom management, and by avoiding ongoing exposure to the identified allergen.

7.

The Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity test is a blood test that measures important markers to aid in the diagnosis of CD including Total IgA, Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA (tTG IgA), Anti-Deamidated Gliadin IgA (DGP IgA), and reflex Anti-Endomysial IgA (EMA IgA). Gluten sensitivity is assessed via Anti-Gliadin IgA and Anti-Gliadin IgG. Along with these results, Genova's unique report configuration provides a simple diagnostic algorithm to aid clinicians in assessing likelihood of disease.

What is the difference between IgE and IgG-mediated reactions?

The key differences between IgE allergies and IgG sensitivities are summarized below:

IgE-Mediated Allergies
(Foods, molds, inhalants)

Immediate onset (minutes to hours)

Circulating half-life of 1-2 days

Permanent allergies

Stimulates histamine release

Hives, stuffy or itchy nose, sneezing, itchy, teary eyes, vomiting, stomach cramps or diarrhea, angioedema or swelling, shortness of breath or wheezing, anaphylaxis

IgG-Mediated Sensitivities
(Foods, spices, vegetarian foods)

Delayed onset (hours to days)

Circulating half-life of 21 days

Temporary sensitivities

Activates complement
Does not stimulate histamine release

Gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, joint aches, rashes, other vague symptoms

When should testing for IgG Food Antibodies be considered?

Testing for adverse food reactions is useful for individuals who suspect that a food is responsible for causing their symptoms, but can't quite identify which food(s). The presence of circulating antibodies may affect each patient differently. Circulating IgG food antibodies are not diagnostic for a specific condition, but indicate an immune response to that food. The immune response could be a normal response that would not necessarily cause symptoms. Therefore, test results should always be viewed in the context of the overall clinical picture. The role of IgG food antibody testing is still being researched, however, studies

have shown the benefit of testing in certain conditions.

 

Conditions associated with IgG food sensitivity

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

  • Major Depressive Disorder

  • Migraine headaches

  • Skin rashes such as eczema

  • Joint aches

  • Autoimmune disease

  • Crohn's Disease

  • Obesity

When should testing for Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity be considered?

Celiac disease is defined as an autoimmune enteropathy of the small intestine, caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. In susceptible individuals, gluten ingestion generates an inflammatory reaction predominantly centered in the upper parts of the small intestine. This mucosal injury will eventually reduce the intestinal absorptive area and interfere with uptake of micronutrients.

Conditions and symptoms associated with Celiac disease

  • Chronic diarrhea with weight loss

  • Steatorrhea

  • Postprandial abdominal pain

  • Bloating

  • Malabsorption with nutrient deficiencies (iron, B12, calcium)

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

  • Elevated liver enzymes

  • Cerebellar ataxia

  • Peripheral neuropathy

  • Type I Diabetes

  • Autoimmune hepatitis

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis

  • Infertility

  • Dermatitis herpetiformis

  • Sjogren syndrome

  • Addison's disease

  • Parathyroid disorders

  • Growth hormone deficiency

  • Primary biliary cirrhosis

  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis

 

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is defined as gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal symptoms that are triggered by gluten consumption, in the absence of Celiac-specific antibodies and villous atrophy, as well as any allergy-related processes. Findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serologic and histologic tests are required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis.1 A diagnosis of NCGS cannot be made until wheat allergy and CD have been eliminated.6 Clinicians may consider adding the IgE Food Antibody test that includes the IgE wheat biomarker for wheat allergy. The diagnosis of NCGS is confirmed by a food provocation test. The only known antibodies observed in NCGS patients are anti-gliadin antibodies which occur in only half of the patients.

IgG Food Antibodies Analytes

  • Alfalfa - IgG

  • Almond - IgG

  • Apple - IgG

  • Apricot - IgG

  • Asparagus - IgG

  • Avocado - IgG

  • Banana - IgG

  • Beef - IgG

  • Beet - IgG

  • Blueberry - IgG

  • Broccoli - IgG

  • Buckwheat - IgG

  • Cabbage - IgG

  • Cane Sugar - IgG

  • Carrot - IgG

  • Casein - IgG

  • Celery - IgG

  • Cheddar cheese - IgG

  • Chicken - IgG

  • Chocolate - IgG

  • Clam - IgG

  • Cod - IgG

  • Coffee - IgG

  • Corn - IgG

  • Corn Gluten - IgG

  • Cottage cheese - IgG

  • Cow's milk - IgG

  • Crab - IgG

  • Cranberry - IgG

  • Cucumber - IgG

  • Egg white - IgG

  • Egg yolk - IgG

  • Garlic - IgG

  • Gluten - IgG

  • Goat's milk - IgG

  • Grape - IgG

  • Grapefruit - IgG

  • Green (string) Bean - IgG

  • Green Pepper - IgG

  • Kidney Bean - IgG

  • Lactalbumin - IgG

  • Lamb - IgG

  • Lemon - IgG

  • Lentil - IgG

  • Lettuce - IgG

  • Lima Bean - IgG

  • Lobster - IgG

  • Mushroom - IgG

  • Oat - IgG

  • Olive - IgG

  • Onion - IgG

  • Orange - IgG

  • Oyster - IgG

  • Papaya - IgG

  • Pea - IgG

  • Peach - IgG

  • Peanut - IgG

  • Pear - IgG

  • Pecan - IgG

  • Pineapple - IgG

  • Pinto Bean - IgG

  • Plum - IgG

  • Pork - IgG

  • Potato, sweet - IgG

  • Potato, white - IgG

  • Raspberry - IgG

  • Red Snapper - IgG

  • Rice - IgG

  • Rye - IgG

  • Salmon - IgG

  • Sardine - IgG

  • Sesame - IgG

  • Shrimp - IgG

  • Sole - IgG

  • Soy - IgG

  • Spinach - IgG

  • Strawberry - IgG

  • Sunflower seed - IgG

  • Tomato - IgG

  • Total IgE

  • Trout - IgG

  • Tuna - IgG

  • Turkey - IgG

  • Walnut - IgG

  • Wheat - IgG

  • Yeast - IgG

  • Yogurt - IgG

  • Zucchini - IgG

IgG Vegetarian Food Profile Analytes

  • Artichoke - IgG

  • Bean Sprout - IgG

  • Canataloupe - IgG

  • Cashew - IgG

  • Cherry - IgG

  • Coconut - IgG

  • Filbert - IgG

  • Flax Seed - IgG

  • Garbanzo - IgG

  • Kamut - IgG

  • Millet - IgG

  • Mung Bean - IgG

  • Navy Bean - IgG

  • Oat Bran - IgG

  • Parmesan Cheese - IgG

  • Pistachio - IgG

  • Safflower - IgG

  • Total IgE

  • Triticale - IgG

  • Watermelon - IgG

  • Wheat Bran - IgG

  • Wild Rice - IgG

IgG Vegetarian Food Profile Analytes

  • Allspice - IgG

  • Basil - IgG

  • Bay leaf - IgG

  • Black Pepper - IgG

  • Cayenne Pepper - IgG

  • Cinnamon - IgG

  • Cloves - IgG

  • Cumin - IgG

  • Curry - IgG

  • Dill - IgG

  • Fennel seed - IgG

  • Ginger - IgG

  • Horseradish - IgG

  • Marjoram - IgG

  • Mustard - IgG

  • Nutmeg - IgG

  • Oregano - IgG

  • Paprika - IgG

  • Parsley - IgG

  • Peppermint - IgG

  • Rosemary - IgG

  • Sage - IgG

  • Thyme - IgG

  • Total IgE

  • Vanilla – IgG

IgE Food Antibodies Analytes

  • Almond - IgE

  • Blue Mussel - IgE

  • Brazil Nut - IgE

  • Buckwheat - IgE

  • Coconut - IgE

  • Cod - IgE

  • Corn - IgE

  • Cow's Milk - IgE

  • Egg White - IgE

  • Hazelnut - IgE

  • Oat - IgE

  • Peanut - IgE

  • Rice - IgE

  • Salmon - IgE

  • Sesame - IgE

  • Shrimp - IgE

  • Soy - IgE

  • Total IgE

  • Tuna - IgE

  • Wheat - IgE

IgE Mold Analytes

  • Alternaria tenuis - IgE

  • Aspergillus fumigatus - IgE

  • Candida albicans - IgE

  • Cladosporium herbarum - IgE

  • Curvularia lunata - IgE

  • Epiccoccum purpurascens - IgE

  • Fusarium moniliforme - IgE

  • Helminthosporium halodes - IgE

  • Mucor racemosus - IgE

  • Penicillium notatum - IgE

  • Phoma betae - IgE

  • Pityrosporum orbiculare - IgE

  • Rhizopus nigricans - IgE

  • Stemphylium botryosum - IgE

  • Total IgE

  • Trichoderma viride – IgE

IgE Inhalants Analytes

  • Alder Tree- IgE

  • Australian Pine Tree- IgE

  • Bahia Grass- IgE

  • Bermuda Grass- IgE

  • Birch Tree- IgE

  • Brome Grass- IgE

  • Canary Grass- IgE

  • Cat dander- IgE

  • Cocklebur- IgE

  • Cockroach- IgE

  • Common Ragweed- IgE

  • Cottonwood Tree- IgE

  • Cultivated Oat Grass- IgE

  • Dandelion- IgE

  • Dog dander- IgE

  • ​Elm Tree- IgE

  • English Plantain- IgE

  • Eucalyptus Tree- IgE

  • Giant Ragweed- IgE

  • Johnson Grass- IgE

  • June Grass (Kentucky Blue)- IgE

  • Lamb's quarters- IgE

  • Maple Tree- IgE

  • Mesquite Tree- IgE

  • Mite Generic- IgE

  • Mold Generic- IgE

  • Mountain Cedar Tree- IgE

  • Nettle- IgE

  • Oak Tree- IgE

  • Olive Tree- IgE

  • Orchard Grass- IgE

  • Pecan Tree- IgE

  • Perennial Rye Grass- IgE

  • Red Top- IgE

  • Rough Marsh Elder- IgE

  • Rough Pigweed- IgE

  • Russian Thistle- IgE

  • Scale- IgE

  • Sweet Vernal Grass- IgE

  • Timothy Grass- IgE

  • Total IgE

  • Walnut Tree- IgE

  • Western Ragweed- IgE

  • White Mulberry Tree- IgE

Celiac & Gluten Sensitivity Analytes

  • Anti-Deamidated Gliadin IgA (DGP IgA)

  • Anti-Gliadin IgA

  • Anti-Gliadin IgG

  • Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA

  • EMA IgA (reflex Only)

  • Total IgA

What advantage does the IgG Food Antibody test offer compared to other diagnostics?

IgG food antibodies can result in a delayed response to a food.1 Whereas IgE antibodies can result in immediate-hypersensitivity to a substance. It is generally easier for patients and clinicians to identify a food that causes an immediate response. A delayed-response to food may be more challenging to determine, and testing can be helpful. The IgG Food Antibody test assesses total IgG (1-4) versus only testing for IgG4. This offers a more complete assessment, however, IgG4 testing is available for clinicians interested in that specific component of IgG.

The body of scientific evidence continues to build regarding correlation with clinical symptoms and conditions for IgG testing (see conditions above). Furthermore, a study comparing methodologies showed that "IgG ELISA testing is more reliable and consistent than cell size testing for identifying food sensitivities."21 Examples of cell size testing or cytotoxic testing include mediator release testing (MRT), antigen leukocyte antibody testing (ALCAT) and lymphocyte response assays.

Other types of adverse food reactions that are not mediated by the immune system are referred to as food intolerances. Food intolerances include lactose intolerance due to lactase enzyme deficiency in the gut; testing is available for suspected lactose intolerance. Testing is not available for all food intolerances. These include vasoactive amines like histamine and tyramine, food additives and preservatives (nitrites, sulfites, MSG, aspartame), salicylates, nightshades, lectins, FODMAPs, oxalates, etc. Since testing is not available for every type of adverse food reaction, the elimination/rechallenge diet remains the gold standard for identification of symptom-producing foods.

What advantage does the IgE Food Antibody test offer compared to other diagnostics?

An IgE allergic response involves immediate-hypersensitivity to a substance. It is generally easier for patients and clinicians to identify a food that causes an immediate response, although not always, and testing serum IgE antibodies can be helpful.

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) guidelines state that a combination of medical history, physical examination, and oral food challenge can assist in the diagnosis of food allergy, with the oral food challenge being the gold standard. In some instances, an oral food challenge may be dangerous for the patient and other tools may be helpful.

A skin-prick test involves the injection of an allergen on the skin then observation for a reaction. This method has low specificity and low positive predictive value, and the injection of a substance that can potentially cause a serious reaction should be monitored closely. Serum testing can be especially useful when skin-prick tests cannot be performed (for example, due to extensive dermatitis or dermatographism), or when antihistamines cannot be discontinued. 

Allergen-specific serum IgE testing does not involve introducing an allergen in order to test. Instead, already circulating antibodies are measured, however, the patient must have been exposed to the allergen in the days leading up to testing in order to detect antibodies. The NIAID suggests, "sIgE tests are useful for identifying foods potentially provoking IgE-mediated food-induced allergic reactions and specified "cutoff" levels, defined as 95% predictive values, may be more predictive than skin prick tests of clinical reactivity in certain populations, but when used alone they are not diagnostic of food allergy."

What advantage does the Celiac and Gluten sensitivity test offer compared to other diagnostics?

Intestinal biopsy is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of Celiac disease. International guidelines suggest that measuring immunologic analytes and genetic markers are favored to increase detection of CD. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) introduced a revised guideline for CD in children based on the optimization of antibody assays. According to this guideline, children can be diagnosed with CD without a duodenal biopsy when presenting with suspicious symptoms, a strongly elevated tTG-IgA (>10 confirmed cut-off value), confirmed by a positive EMA-IgA on a separate occasion, and positive genetic testing (HLA-DQ2 and /or HLA-DQ8). Genova does not offer the HLA-DQ2/DQ8 genetic markers.

What can clinicians and patients expect from IgG Food Antibody testing?

In general, clinical management of the patient with food sensitivities involves elimination or rotation of the highly reactive food(s). Often times, clinicians and patients notice improvement of symptoms after diet modification. Patients may be able to tolerate the food in small amounts, without symptoms, after several weeks or months of elimination. Increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut) may simultaneously be addressed with diet, botanicals, and nutraceuticals, as well as modifying the contributing factors.

What can clinicians and patients expect from IgE Food Antibody testing?

In general, clinical management of the patient with food allergies involves the elimination of offending food(s). Modifiable risk factors (see above) may simultaneously be addressed with diet, botanicals, nutraceuticals, and lifestyle changes.

What can clinicians and patients expect from Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity testing?

Clinical management of the patient with Celiac disease involves strict, lifelong elimination of gluten. Patients with gluten sensitivity may be able to tolerate small amounts of gluten over time after an initial period of elimination.

What can clinicians and patients expect from IgE Mold testing?

In general, clinical management of the patient with mold allergies involves medicines, allergy shots and/or supplements to manage symptoms, as well as cleaning and preventing further mold growth and exposure in the household. HEPA filters, exhaust fans, dehumidifiers, regular cleaning practices, and fixing water leaks may help to reduce the mold burden.

What can clinicians and patients expect from IgE Inhalant testing?

In general, clinical management of the patient with inhalant allergies involves medicines, allergy shots and/or supplements to manage symptoms, as well as cleaning and preventing further exposure to the identified allergen in the household. HEPA filters and regular cleaning practices may help to reduce the allergen burden

Immune Profile Costs

Full Immune profile (IgE Food + IgG Food + IgG Vegetarian + IgE Inhalants + IgE Molds + IgG Spices + Celiac and Gluten Sens): $569*

Individual panels: $250 per panel

Build your own panel:

1st panel: $250 + $99 for every additional panel

  • IgE Food Antibodies              $99

  • IgE Molds (serum)                   $99

  • IgE Inhalants (serum)            $99

  • IgG Spices (serum)                  $99

  • IgG Vegetarian (serum)        $99

*Price includes 60-min nutrition interpretation consultation

Not available for NY state

Please call if you want to build your own panel combo

Sample Report

Important Considerations Before Taking the Test

Important: If a patient has a known IgE-mediated food allergy, Genova DOES NOT recommend exposure to the food that may cause a reaction.

When testing for food antibodies, it is suggested that the patient eat a variety of foods for 2-3 weeks prior to testing (except for foods that are known to cause severe reactions). Doing so will help to ensure the presence of antibodies to problematic foods.

It is also important to remember that IgE antibodies have a circulating half-life of 1-5 days, so any reaction shows current exposure to the antigen, meaning exposure within the several days immediately prior to collecting the test sample. The circulating half-life of IgG is approximately 21-24 days, which means that by approximately 3 months, antibodies to a particular food may be absent if the food has not been consumed by the patient. In other words, if the patient has not consumed the food prior to testing, no reaction to that food would be expected.

When running the Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity Profile, it is important to note that antibodies will only be present if the patient has consumed gluten prior to testing. If the patient is already on a gluten-free diet, genetic testing of the HLA DQ2/DQ8 genes may be helpful. According to the American College of Gastroenterology, a proposed gluten challenge after being gluten-free involves eating 3 grams of gluten daily for 8 weeks prior to testing. However, diagnostic changes are seen in most celiac disease patients after as little as 2 weeks of gluten ingestion.

Collection Instructions

Contact us by phone or email or just stop by to schedule your blood draw. We’ll provide a list of places close to you, or draw next-door.  

You can also buy your kit online and we'll mail the kit to your home

Fill out the appropriate information on the requisition provided by the health provider.

In 2 weeks your test results will come to your health care provider. 

Your healthcare practitioner will call and/or email you to setup an follow up interpretation appointment

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  2. Atkinson W, et. al. Food Elimination Based on IgG Antibodies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gut. 2004;53:1459-1464.

  3. Drisko J, et. al. Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome with a Food Elimination Diet Followed by Food Challenge and Probiotics. J Amer Col Nutr. 2006;25(6):514-522.

  4. Karakula-Juchnowicz H, et.al. The food-specific serum IgG reactivity in major depressive disorder patients, irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls. Nutrients. 2018 Apr;10(5):pii:E548.

  5. Mitchell N, et. al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Food Elimination Diet Based on IgG Antibodies for the Prevention of Migraine-Like Headaches. Nutr J. 2011 May;10:85.

  6. Alpay K, et. al. Diet Restriction in Migraine, Based on IgG Against Foods: A Clinical Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-Over Trial. Cephalgia. 2010 Jul;30(7):829-37.

  7. Aydinlar E, et.al. IgG-Based Elimination Diet in Migraine Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Headache. 2013;53:514-525.

  8. Shakib F, et. al. Study of IgG Sub-Class Antibodies in Patients with Milk Intolerance. Clin Allergy. 1986;16(5):451-458.

  9. Panush RS. Food Induced ("Allergic") Arthritis: Clinical and Serologic Studies. J Rheumatol. 1990 Mar;17(3):291-4.

  10. Coucke F. Food intolerance in patients with manifest autoimmunity. Observational study. Autoimmune Rev. 2018 Nov;17(11):1078-1080.

  11. Bentz S, et. al. Clinical relevance of IgG antibodies against food antigens in Crohn's disease: a double-blind cross-over diet intervention study. Digestion. 2010;81(4):252-64.

  12. Wilders-Truschnig M, et. al. IgG antibodies against food antigens are correlated with inflammation and intima media thickness in obese juveniles. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008 Apr;116(4):241-5.

  13. Purohit V, Bode JC, Bode C, et al. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium. Alcohol. 2008;42(5):349-361.

  14. Vanuytsel T, van Wanrooy S, Vanheel H, et al. Psychological stress and corticotropin-releasing hormone increase intestinal permeability in humans by a mast cell-dependent mechanism. Gut. 2014;63(8):1293-1299.

  15. Soderholm JD, Perdue MH. Stress and gastrointestinal tract. II. Stress and intestinal barrier function. Am J Physiology Gastro Liver Physiology. 2001;280(1):G7-g13.

  16. Bjarnason I, Takeuchi K. Intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy. J Gastro. 2009;44 Suppl 19:23-29.

  17. Bibbo S, Ianiro G, Giorgio V, et al. The role of diet on gut microbiota composition. Eur Rev Med Pharm Sci. 2016;20(22):4742-4749.

  18. Davison G, Marchbank T. Zinc carnosine works with bovine colostrum in truncating heavy exercise-induced increase in gut permeability in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(2):526-536.

  19. Lamprecht M, Bogner S, Schippinger G, et al. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Internat Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9(1):45.

  20. Pires W, Veneroso CE, Wanner SP, et al. Association Between Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia and Intestinal Permeability: A Systematic Review. Sports Med. 2017;47(7):1389-1403.

  21. Hodsdon W and Zwickey H. NMJ Original Research: Reproducibility and Reliability of Two Food Allergy Testing Methods. Nat Med J. 2010;2(3):1-13.

References

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email: info@JunoWellness.com   

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